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Over de nieuwe banen van Ben en Dees.

CAMBRIDGE GARDEN ACADEMY

CrŤche / Nursery / Kindergarten / Primary

Motto of the school: Perfect transformation for development!

Location: Kanvilli North.

Admission form; admission fee and school fees per ward per term.

School prospectus; under 3 years old: Dettol; Lifeboy soap; Ariel Omo; Toilet rolls; Cup and towel.

The school hours are from 8.00 am to 4.30 pm from Monday to Friday.

Plans are far advanced to provide Child Care Services also during the holidays to the entire public and children from other schools may enroll.

Parents who wish to pick up their wards after the normal hours will need to negotiate with the school at a minimal fee.

School uniform: On sale at school as well as P.E. attire.

Foot wear for both boys and girls: Any decent foot wear.

Re-opening day: Our re-opening days are quite unique and we have a good strategy to ease the frustrations of children on their first day at school and subsequently thereafter. In that regard, Parents/Guardians should be prepared to spend at least 40 minutes on this first day to help their wards integrate into the school community with joy.

Learning environment:
∑ Comparable with international standards
∑ Professional Care Givers, loving and patient with the right attitudes and moral discipline
∑ Modern teaching and learning aids/facilities
∑ Excellent environment well secured for learning
∑ Excellent communication facilities to keep the link between children, the school and their parents
∑ Excellent customer care

Objectives:
∑ Provide excellent early child care to working mothers/fathers
∑ Prepare kids right from infancy to begin formal education appropriately
∑ Release the girl children from being engaged to cater for infants at the expense of their own education
∑ Offer parents the opportunity to concentrate on their economic/social pursuits without jeopardizing their wards' educational development.

 

Teachers guide for a new teaching approach

 

Observations

Ghanaian society
Ghana can be described as a collectivistic country, which means that the society consists of and depends on social groups. Each group has its influence on the behaviors and thoughts of a single individual.

Tribe        Religion          Community Chief          National laws (extended)            Family

 

Individual

Figure 1.
The influence of each different social group upon the identity of a Ghanaian.

From an early age on, group values and norms are promoted, therefore these are deeply rooted in the identity of the individual. This means an individual thinks and behaves in a way that is promoted by the group. In every aspect of life, itís natural and expected to obey the rules that are stated by the groups you belong to. Because the group values and norms are deeply rooted, the well-being of an individual is tied with and depends on the well-being of the social group. Therefore people value the well-being of the group as equally important as their own well-being. The advantage of a collectivistic society such as Ghana is that many people share the same opinions, which promotes unity and prevents conflicts. Since an important social norm is to care for- and take care of each other, the social group will provide solutions to problems an individual may encounter. The disadvantage of such a social system is that people are less encouraged to think for themselves and are less encouraged to have opinions on their own. Furthermore, being patient seems effective because with time, the solution will be provided.

A consequence of the above-described society is that there is no need for making individual choices, because choices are predetermined by the social group. When someone doesnít have the sense of making choices and has the feeling that everything is predetermined, he/she wonít feel that he/she can make a change or is responsible for the consequence. By making choices, one will automatically take and feel responsibility for the chosen direction, for he/she has influenced the process and the future outcome.

As a result, development of own ideas is not encouraged and there is therefore little initiative taken to make things better. In this way, development is not supported, for the situation stays the way it always was.

Educational system

The educational system is a reflection of the above-described society. The same skills and knowledge that are valued in society are represented in schools. This means that children are expected to be quiet, patient and obeying. Which are good skills that enable children to properly do as theyíre told. The focus of the matter being taught is on the content of facts. In other words, you can say that the children are being taught to answer the "what question". Children are demanded to memorize the knowledge and as a result they are very good reminders. Anyhow, the presentation of knowledge is fixed and children are not appealed to explore or be creative with it. In other words, children donít need to make choices and have no experience in answering the "why question. As a consequence, knowledge in mind will stay fixed and cannot be generalized to other situations. Furthermore, curiosity or asking why is not encouraged or even discouraged, because this is seen as inappropriate. Even though thinking critical about what you have been taught, makes that one can implement the knowledge in a better way. By asking questions, a full understanding of connections between various constructs can be gained. It is by making connections that you can come up with new solutions and ideas, which imply creativity and innovation. By not dealing with the "why question" a child lacks an understanding of causality, which enables him or her to predict future outcomes and explain past events. This facilitates planning and reflection. When someone is able to see his mistakes and successes in the past, he can maintain or improve his performance in the future. Seeing causality, being creative, taking initiative, planning, and reflecting upon own actions are the key competences in working life. Good decisions are built upon these competences as illustrated by the example in the box below.

 

Box 1.
Important skills for executing tasks and professions in an example of a carpenter

For example, when a carpenter takes the initiative to produce a table a nicer one than his neighbor. After that he can make an inventory of the materials needed. This, he first needs to make a mental picture of a table, before drawing it. With his creativity he can make demands planning skills. In order to buy good quality materials at the lowest price, a comparison of several timber markets is needed before he decides where to buy. Therefore he has to think on an abstract level in order to weigh pros and cons and make a choice. After the purchase of the materials, he can actually start building. The last time he made a table, he might have encountered a construction error. Because this carpenter understands causality, he is able to reflect upon his actions. Therefore he can find out what went wrong, which prevents him of making the same mistake in the future. The understanding of causality allows the carpenter to improve his carpentry skills. Improving skills implicates development.

This example is metaphoric to all professions or even to all daily life tasks. In all kind of tasks, the skills the carpenter needed are useful to make the right choices.

The carpenter in the example learned through experience. The knowledge he gains in this way will be more deeply and widely rooted and better understood than when he had memorized an instruction given by a teacher. He can now bring his knowledge into practice and make improvements all by himself. In short, in school knowledge shouldnít only be told, but should be practiced in all possible ways to build someoneís competences. For now, the children in Ghana have a lot of knowledge in mind, but the skills to implement this knowledge need focus and training.

 

Especially education can provide children with the above competences in order to make sure that they can utilize their knowledge properly. Therefore, we developed a training program for teachers to give them tools with which they are better able to let the children acquire before mentioned competences. If teachers are able to sustain in this new approach, there will be a structural change and so many children can be benefited.

 

Summarizing, one could say that children learn what happened but not why it happened. For a full understanding, one needs to deal with both questions. Since the focus is only on the "what question", the acquiring of certain skills, like reflection, caulality, planning, creativity and taking initiative are neglected.

 

Exercise

Connect the tasks on the left side with the most appropriate skill on the right side by drawing a line between them.

 

Teacher:
                                        Preparing lessons                                 Creativity

Come up with attractive lessons             Reflection

Applying for job                                     Causality

                                        Know how to handle this particular class Planning

                                        Improving lessons next year                     Initiative

 

Shoemaker:                     Improving shoes                                     Creativity

Designing shoe                                     Reflection

Deciding where to buy materials             Causality

Starting a shoe shop                             Planning

Producing                                             Initiative

 

Baker:                             Inventing another bread than neighbor     Planning

                                        Deciding where to buy ingredients         Causality

Improving bread                                    Initiative 
Producing bread                                   Reflection

                                        Starting bakery                                     Creativity

 

Preparing Fufu:               Adding a new ingredient to improve taste   Initiative

Making a shopping list                             Planning

                                        Adjusting the amount of each ingredient     Creativity

                                        Consider making Fufu                               Causality

Deciding where to buy                            Reflection

 

Workshop
Target group

Primary school teachers and youth group leaders

 

Goal

Promoting a different way of teaching that focuses more on the acquiring of skills for better understanding, implementation and creation of knowledge in order to make good decisions/choices.

 

Objectives

Train teachers/youth group leaders to:

  • Encourage children to understand causality and find explanations
  • Encourage children to be creative
  • Encourage children to take initiative
  • Encourage children to plan their actions
  • Encourage children to reflect upon their behavior

 

Definitions

Understanding causality and finding explanations: answering the why-question and gaining insight in causality.

Being creative: generating new ideas or concepts or new associations between existing ideas or concepts.

Taking initiative: undertaking self-directed action

Planning actions: process of thinking about the activities (and in which order) required to create a desired future.

Reflecting: gaining insight in own behavior, thoughts and emotions

 

Approach: coaching role of teacher: PAC-man! Donít say teacher, say PAC-man!

Positive approach to stimulate Activity in order to develop Creativity. When approached in this manner, children will gain confidence in their own capacities.

 

A positive approach will reward the efforts of children so they will have enough confidence to play an active role. Through an active role, a child can learn through experience by exploring and practicing newborn skills. Practicing promotes making associations between concepts, which gives the child ground for the development of his/her creativity.

 

Positivism

 

  • Encouraging and complimenting instead of punishment.

Focus first on the positive aspects of a contribution, and compliment a child for a correct answer. A positive approach will build self-confidence in the child so that he/she dares to take initiative. Punishment not only inhibits the answer but also frustrates the whole thinking process.

 

  • Explaining why an answer or a particular behavior is wrong, so they can learn from their mistakes by linking behavior and consequence.

When a child gives an incorrect answer, donít just correct the child, but give explanations of why an answer is incorrect.

 

  • Providing positive alternatives when observing inappropriate behavior.

In this manner, a child will experience that there are several possible appropriate behaviors and that a behavior can be perceived as a choice.

 

Activity

  • Involving all pupils

Making sure that all pupils are engaged, the shy or withdrawn children are also challenged to think and participate. Give the opportunity to answer not only to the ones who raise their hands, but question the others too. In this way, every child will feel that his active role is desired and that his/her contribution is valued.

 

  • Rewarding motivation and effort regardless of the correctness of the contribution

Show appreciation when a child or a whole class is willing to participate and think along.

 

  • Asking children for explanations

Before correcting or approving, ask the children to motivate their answer. In this way they are forced to think in a more explanatory way.

 

  • Encouraging children to ask questions

Emphasizing that when a child does not understand the matter, he or she can ask the teacher to clarify. Give opportunities for asking questions.

 

Creativity

  • Considering individual differences

Taking into consideration that not every child has the same level of understanding, to some extent, a teacher needs to adapt to that level. Especially when teaching on an individual level (one on one situation).

 

  • Stimulating curiosity and exploration

Before giving the right answer, let each child think of and write down his answer and explanation. In this way, the opportunity and time is given to each child to explore the matter him/herself. Allowing and stimulating children to ask questions when they donít understand or want to know more. When possible, allow a child to observe unknown practices in order to learn in the areas he/she might be interested in.

 

  • Providing opportunities for choice and discovery

In every possible situation, give the child several opportunities to choose from to give him/her a sense of responsibility and a feeling of being able to take decisions and experience consequences. As a teacher, tell them about your own choices in teaching and explain why you take particular decisions.

 

  • Encouraging to generate several ideas before choosing one

To support a child in making choices, encourage him/her to think of various alternatives so that he/she is able to choose the best option.

 

  • Putting emphasis on process instead of product

When an answer is incorrect, donít just correct the answer but ask the child to explain his/her answer and encourage him to find underlying causes. In this way, you prevent him/her from guessing. When you assist in the thinking process, it will make the child better able to reason. Therefore he/she can produce better products in several situations, because he/she will know the underlying cause.

 

Method: Exercises which promote

    • Understanding causality and finding explanations
    • Being creative
    • Taking initiative
    • Planning
    • Reflecting

 

   

Promoted skills

Practices in every day lessons:

Day-structuring

Planning

 

Evaluation

Reflecting, understanding causality and finding explanations, planning

Way of executing lessons:

Cooperative learning

Understanding causality and finding explanations, Being creative, Taking initiative, Planning, Reflecting

 

Correcting others work

Reflecting

Exercises:

Story telling

Being creative, understanding causality and finding explanations.

 

Story finishing/cause finding

Understanding causality and finding explanations, Being creative.

 

Drawing

Being creative, planning

 

Analogies

Understanding causality and finding explanations, being creative

 

Summary

Taking initiative, understanding causality and finding explanations, being creative.

 

Essay

Understanding causality and finding explanations, Being creative, Taking initiative, Planning

 

Presentation

 

Understanding causality and finding explanations, Being creative, Taking initiative, Planning, Reflecting

 

Day structuring

 

Description

Day structuring is actually more directly an exercise for teachers, but stands as a model for the children. In day structuring the teacher has to structure its lessons or time schedule. At the beginning of the day the teacher has to inform the children about the timetable of that particular day or that particular lesson. The teacher also has to inform the children about certain changes in that plan.

 

Aimed objectives

This exercise is not only an opportunity for the teacher to practice with planning, but also familiarizes the children with planning, in a way that the teacher stands as a model. A well-structured lesson or day also facilitates better learning. When a child knows what will come next, he or she can prepare him or herself for the things to come. A well prepared child is better enabled to receive or learn.

 

Implementation

This exercise can be implemented in all subjects during the day.

 

Necessaries

No extra necessaries are needed.

 

Evaluation (reflection and feedback)

 

Description

An evaluation is looking back on the process and product that a child or a group has accomplished and noticing positive points and suggestions to improve.

It starts with asking the actor to reflect on his own behavior. How did he/she feel about this task, is he/she satisfied or does he/she have own points for improvement? Hereby reflects the actor on his own behavior and result. After that, other students can give feedback, which means that they first mention all positive aspects of the assignment and after that they can suggest what can be done better next time. Every time the actor is asked for his opinion on the given points and there is space for discussion, but always in a constructive way. Now, the teacher can conclude by giving compliments and suggestions and a mark can be given for the performance.

 

Aimed objectives

By evaluation, reflection upon own behavior is practiced. The person looks back to what he/she has done in order to compliment and correct him/herself. In this way, he/she has to come up with explanations for his/her own behavior which facilitates understanding causality and finding explanations. Planning skills are practiced by setting goals for the next performance.

 

Implementation

Evaluation, reflection and feedback can be practiced every time a child performs in every course. Beside that, a evaluation can be held for a lesson or activity. For example: What are your thoughts about this lesson? Was it difficult or easy? How was your participation? What can be done better next time?

 

Necessaries

  • Optional: pen and paper to write down the evaluation points.

 

Cooperative learning

 

Description

Working together in small groups to discuss and find solutions to all kinds of tasks. For example finding answers to questions or making a presentation/essay together. Because a group will generate more possible solutions than a single individual, this will more likely result in a better outcome. Besides that, the children will experience more explanations, which can help them to better understand the matter. The result of the assignment can be either a small presentation or output on paper. The process and product of the group has to be evaluated as described above.

 

Aimed objectives

By this assignment all objectives of this program are trained. Children have to take initiative to contribute to the group process by giving their ideas. To make up these ideas, they need creativity. Because children have to discuss, they practice finding explanations to convince each other of the best idea. After making a decision, they have to plan their actions to accomplish the task in time. After accomplishing the task, evaluation will encourage reflection.

 

Implementation

Group work can be implemented for assignments in all courses. Children are encouraged in groups to come up with ideas and appealed to think themselves in order to achieve tasks.

 

Necessaries

  • Assignments
  • Pen and paper

 

Correcting others work

 

Description

This is not really an exercise in itself, but can be implemented in all kinds of exercises. When an assignment or exercise is done and the answers need to be corrected, the answers of one child have to be passed to an other child, for the other child has to correct the answers.

 

Aimed objectives

By correcting others work, children are forced to look at the answers of others critically, in order to judge if an answer is correct or incorrect. Implicitly, theyíll consider their own answers too and compare it to the answers of the other person. This gives them a chance to think of their own answer critically again. This facilitates reflection.

 

Implementation

This exercise can be implemented in all subjects.

 

Necessaries

- a pen or pencil per child and made work.

 

Story telling

 

Description

In storytelling a child has to tell or write down a story. Depending on the instruction, it could be a story based on the fantasy of the child or an already existing story. For example, the teacher could ask the children to tell something about their weekend or holidays.

 

Aimed objectives

In the case of fantasizing about a story, a child has to come up with imagined connections and is not hindered by any given course of events. The child now has an opportunity to be creative. In order to come up with a logical story, the child has to critically think of explanations for the course of events in the imagined story. In the case of an already existing story, a child practices with recalling the events and telling them in a logical and understandable way. In both cases the child practices itís language skills and the child practices its understanding of causes and consequences.

 

Implementation

Story telling can be implemented in most of the subjects. Especially the different languages can facilitate this exercise. But it can also be implemented in subjects discussing history.

 

Necessaries

If the story has to written down, pen and paper is needed.

 

Story finishing/cause finding

 

Description

In this exercise children have to either fantasize about the ending or the beginning of a story. In story finishing the teacher presents the beginning of the story and asks the children to come up with their own ending. In cause finding, the teacher will present the ending of a story or event, after which the children have to think about how this particular story or event started or began. Both tasks have to be done in such a way that it can be perceived as a coherent story.

 

Aimed objectives

The aimed objective of this exercise is to practice with causality, in which the children have to either think of logical causes or logical consequences. This will enhance their understanding of causality. Besides, they have to come up with explanations for the events that are about to occur or just have occurred. They need to use their creativity to create the causes and consequences.

 

Implementation

This exercise can be implemented in all kinds of subjects. It can be used as a tool to practice with a particular language. It can also be used as a tool in the explaining of historical events.

 

Necessaries

The teacher will need a story ending or beginning. He can either fantasize about a story or he can use historical events, newspapers, books etc.

For the children, the necessary tools are a pen and paper, so that children can write down their stories. When these are not at hand, they can also just present their stories orally.

 

Drawing

 

Description

Making a drawing is using pencils and paper to create a picture. The teacher can either encourage the child to choose him/herself what to draw or can give an assignment with a specific theme.

 

Aimed objectives

The skill that is mostly trained is being creative. The child will create a picture all by him/herself, with or without an assignment. If he/she has in mind to draw for example a cat, planning skills are necessary to make sure that the body of the cat will fit on the paper when starting by drawing the head. After the drawing is finished, he/she will look at it and can tell what he/she likes about how he/she drew and how the drawing looks. This practices reflection.

 

Implementation

This assignment can be practiced in any course. For example in a language course the child can be asked to draw a cat and write the word on the same paper to better remember this word. In environmental studies, a child can be asked to draw about the dealt subject to see if he/she understood what it was about. Beside the existing courses, a free drawing assignment can be given to encourage children to be creative and express ideas.

After finishing the drawing, the child can tell something about it and it can be evaluated as described above.

 

Necessaries

  • pencils and paper

 

Analogies and relationships

 

Description

In analogies a child has to think of the way two constructs are connected or how the two constructs resemble each other. The resemblance can either be at a lower level. For example, a dog and a cat resemble each other, in that they are both animals and pets. But the resemblance can also be at a higher level. For example, the number 33 and 21 resemble each other because they are both products of a number of times 3.

Beside analogies, children can be asked to look for relationships between two constructs for example a dog and a bone. The child can answer that a dog chases a bone. An other example is a barber and a pair of scissors. A barber uses a pair of scissors to cut hair. The nature of the relationships is that the first uses the second as a tool to play or work with.

 

Aimed objectives

Analogies are aimed to let the child explain the resemblance of two constructs or the relationship between them. It also lets the child think creatively about connections between two constructs that didnít seem to exist at first sight.

 

Implementation

Analogies and relationships can be implemented in language subjects, because it lets the child practice with words and descriptions. It can also be implemented in subjects discussing history. For example, Hitler and Mussolini resemble each other, in that they were both totalitarian leaders. Or, in more local history, Idi Amin and Mugabe resemble each other, in that they were both totalitarian leaders.

 

Necessaries

No necessaries are needed unless the children have to write it down, than paper and pen are appropriate.

 

Summary

 

Description

Writing or telling a summary is extracting the main points out of a larger text. In this way, the essentials will be separated from the matter of secondary importance.

 

Aimed objectives

Initiative is encouraged when starting to summarize. To be able to do so, the child needs to understand causality in order to capture the main points. Creativity is demanded for arranging the information in a new manner and using other words to represent it.

 

Implementation

Summarizing can be practiced in all courses to rehearse the most important points and explanations that are learned.

 

Necessaries

  • Optional: pen and paper to write down the summary.

 

Essay

 

Description

Writing an essay means that a child writes a text on what he knows about a subject in an understandable and readable manner. Initially, this can be done on a determined subject and of a short length (for example, ten sentences). Later on, the child can choose his own subject and write a longer text.

When finished, the teacher reads the text and evaluates as described above. He can choose to give a mark for the essay.

 

Aimed objectives

By this assignment all objectives of this program are trained. The child needs to take initiative to start with the work. He/she has to use creativity to make up a subject and to arrange the content. He/she needs to find explanations to make a meaningful story of the gathered information. Planning actions is necessary to accomplish the task in time. After finishing he/she will read the result and can reflect on the work he/she has done.

 

Implementation

Writing an essay can be valuable for English, Dagbani, French, Science, Environmental studies and Physical education, depending on the language in which it is written and the subject.

 

Necessaries

  • pen and paper
  • information sources: parents, library, news paper

 

Presentation

 

Description

Giving a presentation means that the child stands in front of the class and explains something to his classmates and the teacher. This can be built up gradually. Every time the child has accomplished a step, he can continue with a larger presentation. For example the first step is that a child explains his answer to his classmates. The next step can be teaching known matter in his or her own words to the rest of the class. After that a child can write a story and read it aloud for the group. In the end a child will be able to present an informative lesson for which he/she has gathered information before.

The last step is the largest assignment, which needs some preparation and is therefore described in more detail now. The children are asked to make a presentation about a subject that they like; either alone or in couples. Keep a planning list where each child writes his name and subject down at a certain date. For example two presentations per week. Each subject may only be presented once. Encourage the children to seek information on the chosen subject, by asking family, reading newspaper and books. After writing a report on the chosen subject, they write the main points down as reminders and tell (not read) all what they know to the group. Hereby, they can use the blackboard. The classmates can ask questions and after the presentation, there will be an evaluation, as described above. In the end a mark can be given. The more the children practice, the better they will become.

 

Aimed objectives

By this assignment all objectives of this program are trained. The child has to take initiative to gather the information. Next he/she has to think of explanations for the knowledge he gained in order to make a logical story out of it. This also practices creativity, because the gathered information has to be ordered in a new way. He/she needs planning skills to order the steps that have to be taken before the appointed date: choosing subject, gathering information, reading information, writing down story, practicing presentation and performing. After the performance, reflection skills are practiced to evaluate what went well and what can be done better.

 

Implementation

The assignment of giving a presentation can be practiced in English, Dagbani, French, Science, Environmental studies and Physical education depending on the chosen subject and the language in which the presentation will be given. If appropriate, the children can be scheduled to a particular course and give a presentation on a subject relevant to this course.

Explaining answers in own words can also be adopted in math and ICT courses.

 

Necessaries

  • planning list
  • pen and paper
  • blackboard and chalk
  • information sources: parents, library, news paper

 

 

Expectancies, challenges and limitations

 

 

1. Hope to meet teachers who are willing to participate in the training to learn something and share ideas.

 

Limitations:

  • Not interested in or motivated for training without getting food or materials.
  • Not seeing the value of the knowledge that is not concrete.
  • Not willing to take the sole responsibility for the development of the children.

 

How to measure:

- Attendance and motivation.

 

 

2. Itís most important that we create awareness among teachers that every behavior and therefore every teaching method has its consequence in supporting or discouraging skills.

 

Limitations:

  • Not accepting the value of skills, overestimating the value of memorizing knowledge.
  • Participants may be unable to think at such an abstract level.

 

How to measure:

- Teachers contribution in discussion shows an understanding of the presented matter.

 

3. Hope the teachers will understand the PAC-man approach and its value, in such a way that they are willing to apply this approach.

 

Limitations:

  • They are not able to think in such an abstract manner.
  • Teachers may want to sustain in their own cultural rooted approach and value the obedience of the children more than these values.

 

How to measure:

- Ask if the teachers are willing to practice the PAC-man approach.

 

4. We would like the teachers to apply the PAC-man approach with exercises generated by both facilitators and participants.

 

Limitations:

  • Classes may be too large to implement approach and method
  • Not able to bring vision into practice.
  • Lacking materials to execute exercises.
  • Not able to execute the patience that is important to implement the method.

 

How to measure:

  • Observe in schools if the approach is applied.

 

SUPERVISIE

INHOLLAND SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK HAARLEM

SOCIAAL PEDAGOGISCHE HULPVERLENING

MAATSCHAPPELIJK WERK EN DIENSTVERLENING

Supervisie is een leermethode voor (beginnende) beoefenaars van beroepen, waarin het doelgericht hanteren van de interactie tussen de werker en anderen een grote rol speelt. Het doel van supervisie: Ondersteuning bieden bij het zelfstandig en op een persoonlijke manier uitoefenen van het beroep. Om dat doel te bereiken richt de supervisie zich op twee aspecten: Vergroting van het integratievermogen en vergroting van het reflectievermogen. Onder integratievermogen verstaan we het vermogen om de samenhang in denken, voelen en handelen te onderkennen en aan te brengen. Integratie is niet alleen gericht op de persoonsdimensie; het gaat tevens om de samenhang tussen je persoon, je concrete werksituatie en het beroep, waarvoor je wordt opgeleid. Dit wordt ook wel beroepsdimensie genoemd.

In supervisie gaat het dus om het leren in samenhang, waarbij de twee dimensies van beroep en persoon worden samengevoegd en opgenomen in het geheel van de beroepsuitoefening. Onder reflectievermogen verstaan we het vermogen om ervaringen, opgedaan in de beroepspraktijk, zodanig te overdenken en doorzien dat dit leidt tot een nieuwe betekenisgeving en tot alternatieven op handelingsniveau. Het leren reflecteren vůůr, tijdens en na het handelen leidt tot een betere beroepsuitoefening. Reflecteren bestaat uit drie nauw met elkaar samenhangende activiteiten: ∑ opdoen van ervaringen; ∑ expliciet maken van ervaringen door concretiseren, expliciteren, problematiseren en generaliseren; ∑ ervaringen vanuit een breder kader bekijken, belichten en beleven.

Supervisortaken: De supervisor richt zich in de begeleiding primair op het leren integreren op twee niveaus en het leren reflecteren op ervaringen opgedaan in de beroepspraktijk. De supervisor geeft geen directieven en adviezen met betrekking tot de werkuitvoering in de beroepspraktijk. De supervisor houdt de grenzen van de supervisie in de gaten en signaleert overlappingen met andere begeleidingsvormen, met name praktijkbegeleiding en hulpverlening. De supervisor begeleidt een geÔndividualiseerd leerproces en geeft hulp bij eventuele leerbelemmeringen die samenhangen met de leerstijl van de supervisant of die ontstaan in het supervisieproces. De supervisor beoogt daarbij, dat de supervisant in staat is de volledige leercyclus te doorlopen, met het oog op zelfstandig en blijvend leren aan en van het beroep.

 

CTSP/Workshops/Docententrainingen

Voor meer achtergrond informatie aangaande de workshops/docententrainingen, die Ben geeft in een dorpje 45 km. verwijderd van Tamale, zie de website van dit Children to School Project, namelijk: 

www.ctspghana.com


Deze site is de moeite van het bezoeken/bekijken waard.

 

NEESIM COMMUNITY CHILDREN'S EDUCATION AND LIBRARY PROJECT (NCCELP)

Description 
The project is run by mister Ramzy. He is about 25 years old and a former student of Tamale poly technical. He started this project with a small group of children, but currently there are more than 95 children involved and it is free after formal education. They don't pay anything for the education. The children do not all attend daily, but more than 85 do. He runs the project by himself, assisted by a brother and a friend. The funding of the project basically consists of what ever money he himself can spare of the money he earns from assistance as a volunteer teacher at a local school in the mornings. This is how he buys for instant the chalk, reading (story) books and other learning materials that are used. He is entertaining, in educative way, more than 95 children, divided into four groups (stages) every afternoon.

Background 
The project is located at Wurishie, a community in the northern part of Ghana, also in the North of Tamale. Many people in this community are farmers and therefore very poor. The parents of the children often don't have money to send their children to school and even if they do, it is normally for the children to help their parents (relatives), for instance with selling their product at the market or house work like collecting water. There are even children at the project whose parents are too poor to even take care of them, therefore they live with relatives. In exchange for food and shelter, the children have to work for the relatives: looking after animals, washing, sweeping etc. Further more, the project initially started with Wurishie community children in 2000/2001. However, currently they have extended to three different communities, which include Sagnaligu, Choggu and Gbolo kpalsi. All these children have to come from far, but they come, because they want to learn. Children can also come on Saturday to borrow books home for reading.

Aims 
To teach children the basic reading, writing, speaking as well as arithmetic. The project also helps the poor children to pay their school fees both in the private and public schools. To help children in doing their assignments. To make sure the children - who do not had the opportunity to go to school -, get education, especially girls. To help the high level students (Junior High School) in the project to excel in their final examinations. To improve the morality and general behaviors of children to standard, to be able to fit well in the society. To advice parents, due to the needed books for their wards. To make sure that children get a good place in senior high school after their junior high level education. To make the children feel happy, especially children who are always not happy in their homes as a result of slavery. To create unity and solidarity among children in various communities by teaching them games, like soccer, drama, songs and other educative games. To give fun to the deprived children, to enable them to get education to sharpen their future. To give advice to parents. This is done through the meetings with the parents.